I highly recommend you to download and install OptiFine. Download it here! http://optifine.net/downloads
TerraFirmaCraft, created by Bioxx, is a complete rework of Minecraft survival. The world generation is very different from vanilla Minecraft, featuring a wide variety of environments, stone layers, and vegetation, and the technology tree is much richer, encompassing pottery, stone working, metallurgy and much more. This mod is designed to make Minecraft survival more challenging and complex, while still being fun to play. Enjoy!
This group of youtubers are creating a Minecraft series using my modpack. You should definitely go check out their TerraFirmaCraft Reloaded Series, as it may explain some of your questions asked, and may even teach you how some things work.